The Emergence of Community-Based Nursing Education Programmes

  • Mtshali Gloria Ntombifikile


The worldwide changes in the health systems, including the adoption of a primary health care approach, has contributed significantly to the paradigm shift from hospital-based education to community-based education. Community-based education is favoured because of its potential to stimulate interest amongst graduates to serve in rural and under-resourced settings and it has a potential to equip graduates with competencies required to function in a primary health care oriented system. In South Africa, community-based nursing education was first reported in university-based schools of nursing in the early 90's and the first nursing college piloted community-based nursing education in the late 90's. Most of the initiatives were supported by the Kellogg Foundation. The nursing schools adopted a problem-based approach to learning and adult learning principles in their community-based programmes. Literature however reflects that there have been some adjustments in the initial programmes to ensure effective learning and sustainability of these initiatives.


Adejumo, O. & Gangalimando, M. (2000). Facilitating positive

attitudes toward an innovative programme for baccalaureate nursing education: Example from the clinical settings in Durban. Curationis, 1, 3-7.

Anderson, N. L.R.; Calvillo, E.R. & Fongwa, M.N. 2007).

Community-Based Approaches to Strengthen Cultural Competency in Nursing Education and Practice. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Supplement to Vol. 18 No. 1,49S-59S.

Banda, J., & Bruce, J. (1999). Community-based activities. University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences: Department of Nursing Education, p. 6.

Carter, K.F.; Fournier, M.; Kielh, E.M. & Sims, K.M. (2005). Innovations in Community-based Nursing Education: Transitioning Faculty. Journal of Professional

Nursing, 21,(3),167-174

Dana, N. & Gwele, N. S. (1998). Perceptions of student nurses of their personal and academic development during placement in the community as a clinical learning environment. Curationis,1, 58-64.

Fitchardt, A. & du Rand, P. (2000). Facilitators' perceptions of problem-based learning and community-based education.

Health SA Gesondhuid, 5, (2), 3-10.

Fitchardt. A. E.; Viljoen, M. J., Botma, Y. & du Rand, P. P. (2000). Adapting to and implementing problem and community-based approach to nursing education. Curationis,

, 86-91.

Gwele, N. S. (1997). The development of staffs concerns during the implementation of problem-based learning in a nursing programme. Medical Teacher, 19, (4), 275- 284).

Gwele, N. S. (1999) Experiential learning in action: A programme for preparing educators for health professionals.

Hlungwane, M. (1999). The Hilbrow community partnership in health personnel education. University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences: Department of Nursing, p 18.

Kaye, D, ;Mwanika, A; Burnham, G.; Chang, l.W.; Mbalinda, S.N.; Okullo, I.; Nabirye, R.C. Muhwezi, W,; Oria, H,; Kijjambu, S.; Atuyambe, L. & Aryeija, W. (2011). The organization and implementation of community-based education programs for health worker training institutions in Uganda. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011, 11(Suppl 1):S4

Lashley, M. (2006). Teaching community based nursing in a parish nurse faculty practice Nurse Education in Practice 6, 232–236

Linda, Z.; Engelbrecth, C. & Mtshali, N.G. (2008). A Phenomenological Investigation of Community Involvement in UKZN Community-Based Nursing Education Programme. Unpublished Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal.

Madalane, L. D. (1997). Analysis of students' views concerning clinical supervision and learning opportunities in community settings. (Unpublished Manuscript) University of Natal, Durban.

Mash, B. & de Villiers, M. (1999). Community-based training in family medicine: a different paradigm. Medical Education, 33, (10), 725-729.

McInerney, P. A. (1998) Recurriculating to problem-based learning curriculum:The Wits experience. Curationis,(5),53-56.

Mthembu, N.S. & Mtshali, N.G. (2011). Knowledge construction in community-based Service Learning

Nursing Programmes: A grounded theory approach. Unpublished Thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal.

Mtshali N.G. & Middleton, L. (2010). The Triple Jump Assessment: Aligning Learning and Assessment- Chapter 14. In T. Barrett & S. Moore (Editors). New Approaches to Problem-based Learning Revitalizing Your Practice in Higher Education. Taylor & Francis Ltd: Routledge, UK.

Mtshali N.G. (2009). Implementing community-based education in basic nursing education programs in South Africa. Curationis, 32(1):25-32.

Mtshali N.G. (2005). Conceptualisation of community-based basic nursing education in South Africa: a grounded theory analysis. Curationis, 28(2):5-12.

Mtshali, N.G. & Gwele, N.S. (2003). A grounded theory analysis of Community-based education in basin nursing in South Africa. Unpublished Thesis. University of KwaZulu-Natal.

Mullan, F & Epstein, L 2002: Community-oriented primary care: New relevance in a changing world. American Journal of Public Health, 92, (11), 1748-1725.

National Commission of Higher Education (1996). NCHE Report: a framework for transformation. Parow (SA): CTP Book Printers.

Nazareth, I. & Mfenyane, K. (1999) Medical education in the community- the UNITRA

Schmidt, H. G.; Magzoub, M.; Felletti, G.; Nooman, Z. H. & Vluggen, S. (2000). Handbook on community-based education. Maastrich: Network Publications.

Strasser, R. P, (2010). Community engagement: a key to successful rural clinical education. Rural Remote Health,


Tshabalala, M. (1999). Alexandra health centre and university clinic. University of Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences:

Department of Nursing Education, p. 17.

University of Witwatersrand, School of Nursing, Outreach - Community Based Activities. Retrieved March, 15, 2001 from

Uys, L.R. (1998). University of Natal, School of Nursing. Network of Community-oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences Newsletter, 28, 19.

Villani, C. J. & Atkins, D. (2000). Community-based education.

School Community Journal, 10, (1), 121-126.

Yousif, T. K. (2007). Toward a better community based education program in Iraq. The Middle East Journal of Medical Education, 5, (4), 8-11.