A systematic review on effects of physical activity interventions on early motor development in children with down syndrome
The main aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of physical activity on motor development in children with Down
Syndrome by means of a systematic review.
An extensive literature search of published studies in English from 1980 to May 2006 was performed. Of the fifty-eight studies identified only four met the inclusion criteria. This review included studies that investigated the effects of physical activity on motor development in children with Down Syndrome and evaluated the outcomes in terms of the levelof activity.
One study showed a significant decrease in length oftime to independent wa lking in the intervention group (CI-101[-180.48--21.52]. Two studies (N=84) reported a significant improvement in the total developmental quotient following intensive physical activity (wmd and Cl 95% -13.07 [-17.66, -8.48]. Three studies showed an increased in locomotor developmental skills following physical activity intervention.
The results of this review support the use of programmes that are designed to improve motor development in children with Down Syndrome.
We recommend that physical activity programmes need to be intensive and parents should be incorporated to strengthen the outcomes.
Bayley , N. (1993). Scales of Infant Development , 2nd Ed. San Antonio, Tx: The Psychological Corporation.
Berk, L.E. (2004). Development through the lifespan, 3rd Ed. Boston,MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Bhogal,S.K., Teasel!, R.W., Foley,N.C. & Speechley, M.R. (2005). The PEDro scale provides a more comprehensive measure of methodological quality than the Jadad Scale in stroke rehabilitation literature. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology , 58, 668-673.
Bruni, M. (1998). Fine motor skills in children with Down Syndrome: A guide for parents and professionals. Bethesda. MD: Woodbine House,Inc.
Chapman, R.S, & Hesketh, L.J . (2000). Behavioral phenotype of individuals with Down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmenta l Disability Research Review. 6, 84-95.
Cicchetti, D. & Beeghly, M. eds . (1990). Children 'Aith Down Syndrome: A developmental perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Condon B. (2002).A controlled trial of health promotion programs in 11 year olds using physical activ ity "enrichment" for higher risk children. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 14, 113-115.
Connolly , B.H., Morgan , S, & Russell, F.F. (1984). Evaluation of children with Down syndrome who participated in an early intervention program: Second follow-up study . Physical Therapy. 10, 1515-1519.
Connolly, B.H, & Michael, B.T. (1986). Perfonnance of retarded children, with and without Down syndrome. on the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Physical Therapy, 66 : 344- 348.
Connolly , B.H., Morgan S ., Russell, F.F, & Richa rdson, B. (1980). Early intervention with Down Syndrome children: follow-up report. Physical Therapy, 60, 1405-1408.
Goodman. M., Rothberg, A .D., Houston-McMillan. J.E., Cooper, P.A., Cartwright , J.D.. van der Velde, M.A. (1985). Effect of early neuro developmental therapy in normal and at-risk survivors of neonatal intensive care. Lancet 14. 1327-1330.
Griffiths, R. (1996). Griffiths Mental Development Scales (Birlh to 2 years) (Revision). Oxon: The Test Agency.
Guidice, E.D., Brogna, G., Romano , A.,Paludetto, R, & Toscano E.------1;:2006). Early intervention for children with Down Syndrome in - Southern Italy: The role of parent-implemented developmental training. Infants and Young Children, 19, 50-58.
Kanda, T., Pidcock , F.S., Hayakawa, K., Yamori , Y , & Shikata Y. (2004). Motor outcome differences between two groups of--cllitdren with spastic diplegia who received different intensities of early onset physiotherapy followed for 5 years. Brain Development , 26, 118-26.
Lee, M.G.& Smith,G.N.(1998). The effectiveness of physiotherapy for dyspraxia . Physiotherapy .84, 276-284.
Lilly, L.A. & Powell, N.J. (1990). Measuring the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment on the daily living skills of 2 children with cerebral palsy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44,139-145.
Maher, C.G., Sherrington, C., Herbert, R.D.,Moseley, A.M, & Elkins M. (2003) . Reliability of the PEDro Scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials. Physical Therapy, 83,713-721.
Mahoney, G., Robinson, C., Fewell, R.R. (2001). The effects of
Early Motor Intervention on Children with Down syndrome or Cerebral Palsy:A field-Based Study. Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pedriatrics , 22.153-162.
Mayo, N.E. (1991).The effect of Physical Therapy for children with motor delay and Cerebral Palsy. American Journal of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation . 70, 258-267.
Palmer , F.B. (1997). Evaluation of developmental therapies in cerebral palsy. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabililty Res Review , 3, 145-152.
Palmer, F.B., Shapiro, B.K..Wachtel . R.C., Allen , M.C., Hiller, J.E., Harryman, S.E., Mosher, B.S., Meinert, C.L, & Capute, A.J. (1988) The effects of physical therapy on cerebral palsy. A
controlled trial in infants with spastic diplegia. New England
Journal of Medicine, 318, 803-808 .
Pang, M.Y ., Eng, J.J., Dawson, A.S , & Gylfadottir, S. (2006). The use of-aerobic exercise training in improving aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke: a meta-analysis. Clinical Rehabilation. 20,97-111.
Piper, M.C. & Pless, LB. (1980). Early intervention for children with Down Syndrome:a controlled trial. Pediatrics, 65, 463-468 .
Renileli, C:;-8alvaggio, E., Sciascia, C.G., Cannizzaro.G., Bianchi, E., Calderelli, M. & Guzzetta , F. (2002). Does locomotion improve the cognitive profile of children with meningomyelocele? Childs Nervous System, 18,231-234.
Spiker, D. & Hopmann, M.R. (1997). The effectiveness of early intervention for children with Down Syndrome. In: The effectiveness of early intervention, Guralnick, M.J, ed. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company .Inc.
Turnbull, J.D. (1993). Early intervention for children with or at risk of cerebral palsy. American Journal of Disabled Children, 147, 54-
Ulrich, D.A., Ulrich, B.D., Angulo-Kinzler, R.M, & Yun, J. (2001). Treadmill training of infants with Down Syndrome : evidence based developmental outcomes. Pediatrics. 2001;108:e84.
Uyanik, M., Bumin, G., Kayihan, H. (2003). Comparison of different therapy approaches in children with Down syndrome .Pediatrics International, 45, 68-73.
Winders , P.C. (1997). Gross motor skills in children with Down Syndrome: A guide for parents and professionals . Bethesda, MD:Woodbine House, Inc.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.