Factors contributing to running injuries
Design: A narrative review
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight some common extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors associated with running injuries that should be considered in themanagement and prevention of running injuries.
Background: Running is one the most common sports activity that is practiced throughout the world. This increase in popularity in running could gradually increase the incidence rate of injury thus contributing to overuse injuries. Research in the field of running injuries is vast and has been conducted over more than 40 years. It is however difficult to distinguish the exact cause of running injuries as the aetiologies aremultifactoral and diverse. There are various factors (extrinsic or intrinsic) that could be associated to running injuries. Extrinsic factors such as training methods, training surfaces or incorrect running shoes have been identified as some common risk factors. Some intrinsic factors such as muscle strength, flexibility and malalignment of the leg have also been identified which could further explain the aetiology of running injuries. Many researchers have identified various contributing factors to running injuries however there is a lack of conclusive evidence on the identified factors. Thus, the acquiring knowledge and scientific evidence about the risk factors related to common running injuries are important as it could assist in the treatment and prevention of long-term injuries.
Conclusion: To reduce the high incidence rates of running injuries and to promote independence in injury management, a rehabilitation programme consisting of a training programme which gradually increases mileage, frequency, resting periods, appropriate running shoes for different foot types; heel lifts to adjust malalignments of the leg; flexibility and strengthening programmes of the lower limb and the selection of appropriate training surfaces and terrain is needed
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