Outcome measures used to assess disability post stroke within the framework of the ICF: A Literature Review

  • Conran Joseph
  • Anthea Rhoda

Abstract


Background: The use of outcome measures has been associated with good practice among clinicians and as a research instrument. These measures can be utilized to assess- and manage patients, observe progress, determine the effects of certain intervention and for research purposes. This scholarly paper investigates the most commonly used outcome measures along the continuum of care, and further provides additional information that will assist researchers and clinicians to decide on the most appropriate outcome measure in a South African Healthcare.

Methods: Literature of the past 10 years dealing with outcome measures was reviewed for this study. The types of papers in this review were systematic reviews, narrative reviews, scholarly papers, longitudinal and cross sectional.

Results and Discussion: Included in this review are four impairment, five activity/disability, two participation restriction and four quality of life outcome measures. Although a number of these measures have been used in the South African setting, it is not clear whether they have been validated for the local context. Few translated versions relevant to South Africa are available and not all measures are freely available, which could limit the use thereof.

Conclusion: This paper successfully describes the commonly used outcome measures and aspects that should be taken into account when deciding on the appropriate measure.

References

Brott, T.G., Adams, H.P., Olinger, C.P., Marler, J.R., Barsan,

W.G., Biller, J., Spilker, J., Holleran, R., Eberle, R., Hertzberg, V., Rorick, M., Moomaw, C.J., & Walker, M. (1989). Measurements of acute cerebral infarction: a clinical examination scale. Stroke, 20, 864 -70.

Chait, L. A., de Aguiar, G., Theron, A., & Bleloch, S. (2002). The role of botulinum toxin in treating Cerebral Palsy hands. Current opinion in Orthopaedics, 13(4), 251-255.

Chang-Hoon, J., Dong-Jae, K., Se-Kang, K., Dong-Jun, K., Hwan-Mo, L., & Heui-Jeon, P. (2006). Validation in the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Korean Version of the Oswestry Disability Index. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 21(6), 1092-1097.

Cohen, M.E., & Marino, R.J. (2000). The tools of disability outcomes research functional status measures. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81(2), S21-S29.

Connor, M.D., Modi, G., & Warlow, C.P. (2009). Differences in the Nature of Stroke in a Multiethnic Urban South African Population: The Johannesburg Hospital Stroke Register. Stroke, 40, 355-362.

Cronje, F., Duim, W., Marroni, A., & Cali-Corleo, R.

(2006). Cerebrovascular Incidents (Stroke). Handbook on hyperbaric medicine (Part II). Springer

Netherlands Cup, E. H. C., Scholte op Reimer, W. J. M., Thijssen, M.C. E., van Kuyk-Minis, & M. A. H. (2003). Reliability and validity of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure in stroke patients. Clinical Rehabilitation, 17, 402-409.

Dromerick, A. W., Edwards, D. F., & Diringer, M. N. (2003). Sensitivity to changes in disability after stroke: A comparison of four scales useful in clinical trials. Journal of Rehabilitation

Research and Development, 40(1), 1-8.

Duncan, P. W., Samsa, G. P., Weinberger, M., Goldstein,

L. B., Bonito, A., Witter, D. M., Enarson, C., & Matchar,

D. (1997). Health status of individuals with mild stroke. Stroke, 28(4), 740-745.

Goldstein, L.B., & Samsa, G.P. (1997). Reliability of the National Institutes of Health stroke scale: Extension to non-neurologists in the context of a clinical trial. Stroke, 28, 307 -310.

Gregson, J.M., Leathley, M., Moore, P., Sharma, A.K., Smith, T.L., & Watkins, CL. (1999). Reliability of the Tone Assessment Scale and the Modified Ashworth Scale as clinical tools for assessing poststroke spasticity. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80, 1013-1016.

Haigh, R., Tennant, A., Biering-Sorensen, F., Grimby, G., Marincek, C., Phillips, S., Ring, H.,Tesio, L., & Thonnard, J.L. (2001). The use of outcome measures in physical medicine and rehabilitation within Europe. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 33, 273-278.

Harding, R., Dinat, N., & Sebuyira, L.M. (2007).

Measuring and improving palliative care in South Africa: multiprofessional clinical perspectives on development and application of appropriate outcome tools. Progress in Palliative Care, 15(2),55-59.

Harwood, R. H., & Ebrahim, S. (2002).The validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living scale in patients undergoing total hip replacement. Disability and Rehabilitation, 24(7), 371-377.

Harwood, R. H., Ebrahim, S. (2000). A comparison of the responsiveness of the Nottingham extended activities of daily living scale, London handicap scale, and SF- Disability & Rehabilitation , 22(17), 786-793.

Hobart, J. C., & Thompson, A. J. (2001). The five item Barthel index. Journal of Neurology & Neurosurgical Psychiatry, 71, 225-230.

Hsueh, I. P., Lee, M. M., & Hsieh, C. L. (2001).

Psychometric characteristics of the Barthel Activities of Daily Living index in stroke patients. Journal Formos Medical Association, 100(8), 526-532.

Inglis, G., Faure, M.R., & Frieg, A. (2008). The awareness and use of outcome measures by South African physiotherapists. South African Society of Physiotherapy, 64 (2), 5-11.

Jelsma, J. (2010). A comparison of the performance of the EQ-5D and the EQ-5D-Y Health-Related Quality of Life instruments in South African children. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 33(2), 172-177.

Korner-Bitensky, N., Wood-Dauphinee, S., Siemiatycki, J., Shapiro, S., Becker, R. (1994). Health related information postdischarge: Telephone versus face-to- face interviewing. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75, 1287-1296.

Kutlay, S., Küçükdeveci, A., Elhan, A. H, Öztuna, D., Koç, N., & Tennant, A. (2009). Validation of the World Health Organization disability assessment schedule II (WHODAS-II) in patients with osteoarthritis. Rheumatology International, 49(2), 326-333.

Lees, K., Asplund, K., Carolei, A., Davis, S., Diener, H., Kaste, M., Orgogozo, J., &Whitehead, J. (2000). Glycine antagonist (gavestinel) in neuroprotection (GAIN International) in patients with acute stroke: a randomised controlled trial The Lancet, 355, 1949- 1954.

Lyden, P., Lu, M. Jackson, C., Marler, J., Kothari, R., Brott, T., & Zivin, J. (1999). Underlying structure of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: Results of a factor analysis. Stroke, 30, 2347-2354.

McGinnis, G.E., Seward, M.L., DeJong, G., & Osberg,

J.S. (1986). Program evaluation of physical medicine and rehabilitation departments using self-report Barthel. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 14, 61-65.

McHorney, C.A. (1997). Generic health measurement: past accomplishments and a measurement paradigm for the 21st century. Annals of internal medicine, 127, 743-750.

Meesters, J. J. L., Verhoef, J., Liem, I. S. L., Putter, H., & Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M. (2009). Validity and responsiveness of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II to assess disability in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rheumatology, 49(2), 326-333.

Miller, W. C., Deathe, A. B., & Harris, J. (2004).

Measurement properties of the Frenchay Activities Index among individuals with a lower limb amputation. Clinical Rehabilitation, 18(4), 414-422.

Mkoka, S., Vaughan, J., Wylie, T., Yelland, H., & Jelsma,

J. (2003). The pitfalls of translation- a case study

based on the translation of the EQ-5D into Xhosa. South African Medical Journal, 93 (4), 265-266.

Muir, K.W., Weir, C.J., Murray, G.D., Povey, C., Lees, K.R. (1996). Comparison of neurological scales and scoring systems for acute stroke prognosis. Stroke,

, 1817- 1820.

Murray, C.J., & Lopez, A.D. (1997).Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global burden of disease study. The Lancet, 349, 1436-1442.

Nicholl, C. R., Lincoln, N. B., & Playford, E. D. (2002). The reliability and validity of the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale in patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 8(5), 372-376.

Nichols-Larsen, D. S., Clark, P. C., Zeringue, A., & Blanton, A. G. S. (2005). Factors Influencing Stroke Survivors’ Quality of Life During Subacute Recovery. Stroke, 36, 1480-1484.

Peltzer, K., & Phaswana-Mafuya, N. (2008). Levels of ability and functioning of persons living with HIV and Aids using WHODAS II in a South African context. Journal of Social Development in Africa, 23(2), 33-53.

Post, M. W. M., & de Witte, L. P. (2003). Good inter-rater reliability of the Frenchay Activities Index in stroke patients. Clinical Rehabilitation, 17(5), 548-552.

Puckree, T., Chetty, T.P., Ramlakan, S., Simelane, T.V., & Lin, J. (1997). An evaluation of the functional status of the residents of a geriatric residential facility in South Africa. Disability and Rehabilitation, 19(12), 552-555.

Quinn, T. J., Dawson, J., Walters, M. R., & Lees, K. R. (2009). Exploring the reliability of the Modified Rankin Scale. Stroke, 40, 762-766.

Rhoda, A. J. (2010). Rehabilitation of stroke patients at community health centres in the metropole region of the Western Cape. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.

Salter, K., Jutai, J. W., Teasell, R., Foley, N. C., Bitensky, J., & Bayley. (2005). Issues for selection of outcomes measures in stroke rehabilitation: ICF activity. Disability and

Rehabilitation, 27, 507-528.

Saver, J.L., Johnston, K.C., & Homer, D. (1999). Infarct volume as a surrogate or auxiliary outcome measure in ischemic stroke clinical trials. Stroke, 30, 293 -98.

Schepers, V.P.M., Ketelaar, M., Van De Port, I.G.L., Visser-Meily, J.M.A., & Lindeman, E. (2007). Comparing contents of functional outcome measures in stroke rehabilitation using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Disability and Rehabilitation, 29(3), 221-230.

Skinner, A., Turner-Stokes, T. (2006). The use of standardized outcome measures in rehabilitation centres in the UK. Clinical Rehabilitation, 20, 609-615.

Stark, R. G., Reitmeir, P., Leidl, R., & Konig, H. (2009). Validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the EQ-5D in inflammatory bowel disease in Germany. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 16(1), 42-51.

Tennant, A. (2000). Measuring outcome. British Medical Bulletin, 56(2), 287-295.

Turner-Stokes, L. (2000). Measurement of outcome in rehabilitation: “Basket” of measures. The British Society of rehabilitation medicine document retrieved March, 05, 2010.

Wade, D. T., Legh-Smith, J., & Langton, H. R. (1985).

Social activities after stroke: Measurement and natural history using the Frenchay Activities Index. International Rehabilitation Medicine, 7(4), 176-181.

Wade, D.T., & Collin, C. (1988). The Barthel ADL index: A standard measure of physical disability. International Disability Studies, 10, 64-67.

Walters, S. J., Munro, J. F., & Brazier, J. E. (2001). Using the SF-36 with older adults: A cross-sectional community-based survey. Age and Ageing, 30, 337- 343.

Westaway, M. S. (2010). Effects of ageing, chronic disease and co-morbidity on the health and well-being of older residents of Greater Tshwane. South African Medical Journal, 100, 35-36.

Wilkinson, P. R., Wolfe, C. D. A., Warburton, F. G., Rudd,

A. G., Howard, R. S., Ross-Russell, R. W., et al. (1997). Longer term quality of life and outcome in stroke patients: is the Barthel index alone an adequate measure of outcome? Quality Health Care, 6, 125- 130.

Williams, L. S., Bakas, T., Brizendine, E., Plue, L., Tu, W., Hendrie, H., & Kroenke, K. (2006). Stroke, 37, 2081-2085.

Wolfe, C. D., Taub, N. A., Woodrow, E.J., & Burney, P. G. (1991). Assessment of scales of disability and handicap for stroke patients. Stroke, 22, 1242-1244.

Wood-Dauphinee, S. L., Opzoomer, M. A., Williams, J. I., Marchand, B., & Spitzer, W. O. (1988). Assessment of global function: The Reintegration to Normal Living Index. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 69, 583-590.

World Health Organisation. (2001). International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

Section
Articles