Journal of Community and Health Sciences <p>The Journal of Community and Health Sciences publishes original research and scholarly reviews in community and health sciences and related disciplines. The journal is published twice a year (April and October).</p> University of the Western Cape en-US Journal of Community and Health Sciences 1990-9403 <span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br />Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br /><br />Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.<br /><br /></span> Predictors of smoking practice among high school learners <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Introduction</strong>: Smoking presents a challenge to the future health status of learners who are smokers. There are<br />over one billion smokers in the world today. Smoking is evident among the youth of South Africa with 19.6% of<br />them being involved in this habit.<br /><strong>Objectives</strong>: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking in grade twelve learners. It<br />was further investigated whether socio-demographic factors may influence the prediction of the smoking practice<br />among these learners.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: This paper is reporting on a selective concept of a larger cross-sectional descriptive survey.<br /><strong>Participants</strong>: All learners who gave informed consent and who were enrolled during 2001 as grade twelve<br />learners at three selected schools (n=452), were recruited to participate in the survey.<br /><strong>Setting</strong>: The study was done in the multi-cultured community of Tshwane South Education District located in<br />Gauteng Province. The district was divided into three strata. One school was selected randomly from each<br />stratum.<br /><strong>Intervention</strong>: A self-administered questionnaire.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: There were 401 (89%) returned questionnaires. Overall 104 (26%) of students were current smokers.<br />Smoking practice was a significantly associated with race, gender, smoking habits of parents, siblings and<br />friends and fathers' employment status.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Smoking amongst grade 12 scholars is on the increase and specific predictors may play a role to<br />influence the uptake of smoking among learners.</p> Maggie Dimakatso Mokonoto Shan Naidoo Copyright (c) 2017 Maggie Dimakatso Mokonoto, Shan Naidoo 1 2 Stress and smoking among university students at the University of the Western Cape <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br><strong>Introduction</strong>: Stress is one of the most commonly reported reasons for smoking and generally smokers are<br>perceived to experience more stress than non-smokers. Reducing stress may thus be an important part of<br>smoking cessation.<br><strong>Objectives</strong>: The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of smoking and stress among<br>university students attending the University of the Western Cape.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional descriptive survey study design was used to describe and identify smoking habits of<br>university students as well as their stress levels. The data was captured on Excel and SPSS was used to<br>analyse the data.<br><strong>Participants</strong>: Nine hundred and twelve university students.<br><strong>Setting</strong>: Students enrolled at six faculties at the University of the Western Cape.<br><strong>Intervention</strong>: Self-answered questionnaire<br><strong>Results</strong>: Slightly more than half (53%) of the students had smoked previously but only, 61 % of these reported<br>having smoked in the last month (current smokers). Females reported to experience more stress than males<br>(stress score 21.6 vs 16.6). The main reasons for smoking included helping to relax, just enjoying smoking,<br>coping with stress and smoking because friends smoke.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Students need to know that increased stress levels are associated with smoking.</p> <p><strong>Groups at higher&nbsp;risk are:</strong> those being older than 30 years; female; of the coloured ethnic group; in the fourth year of study and studying in the law faculty.</p> Jose M. Frantz Copyright (c) 2017 Jose Frantz 1 2 Caregivers' satisfaction with physiotherapy services at a cerebral palsy clinic in Kampala, Uganda <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Introduction</strong>: The evaluation of satisfaction with health care service provision is important when trying to<br />provide quality care. Satisfaction with service provision has been found to be related to the expectations prior to<br />receiving the service and the actual experience of the service.<br /><strong>Objectives</strong>: To explore the expectations and satisfaction that caregivers of children with cerebral palsy have<br />when they attend physiotherapy services.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A qualitative study using two focus groups. A semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate<br />the focus group discussions. Data was collected and thematic analysis was undertaken<br /><strong>Participants</strong>: Nine caregivers, five mother, three grand mothers and one grandfather, participated in the focus<br />group discussions.<br /><strong>Setting</strong>: A cerebral palsy clinic in Kampala, Uganda.<br />Intervention: No intervention but an interview schedule was used to obtain information.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: The caregivers were satisfied with seeing an improvement in the children's abilities, the outcome of the<br />home programme and the assistive devices. Not all the caregivers were satisfied with the knowledge they had<br />gained and the development of their skills. Caregivers were dissatisfied with regards to communication with the<br />physiotherapists.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Physiotherapy plays an important role in the improvement of cerebral palsy children's physical<br />abilities and knowledge given to caregivers but physiotherapists need to improve in their communication skills.</p> Helen Omare Patricia Struthers Copyright (c) 2017 Helen Omare, Patricia Struthers 1 2 Common physical problems among the elderly in the Livingstone district in Zambia: opportunities for physiotherapists <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Introduction</strong>: The study identified prevalent physical problems with regard to physiotherapy needs in elderly<br />people in the Livingstone District in Zambia.<br /><strong>Objectives</strong>: To identify the physiotherapy needs of common physical problems in the elderly.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study design, utilising a quantitative research method and a convenience sampling<br />technique.<br /><strong>Participants</strong>: A total of 200 elderly people from the age of 60 years<br /><strong>Setting</strong>: Livingstone District in Zambia<br />Intervention: A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: The most common self-reported physical problems identified were musculoskeletal problems, physical<br />inactivity, decreased ability to walk and the need for walking aids. Hypertension was a common cardiovascular<br />disorder.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Physiotherapists are ideally suited to alleviate the discomfort, activity limitation and participation<br />restriction associated with ageing.</p> Pasmore Malambo Margaret Marais Copyright (c) 2017 Pasmore Malambo, Margaret Marais 1 2 Experiences of caregivers of stroke patients in Lusaka, Zambia <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Introduction</strong>: Stroke is a major cause of death and most survivors are left with residual disability and are<br />dependent on others for essential care.<br /><strong>Objectives</strong>: The objective of the present study was to determine the experiences of informal caregivers of stroke<br />patients receiving out-patient physiotherapy treatment at the University Teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect data in the present study.<br /><strong>Participants</strong>: A convenient sample of 70 caregivers was selected for the quantitative part of the study while 10<br />caregivers were purposively selected for the in-depth qualitative interviews.<br /><strong>Setting</strong>: Out-patients at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia<br /><strong>Intervention</strong>: The Caregiver Strain Index was used to collect quantitative data and in-depth interviews provided<br />the qualitative data.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: The mean age of the participants was 37.6 years. The study sample consisted of more females (70%)<br />than males (30%). Financial constraints, family adjustments and being overwhelmed by their care-giving role<br />were the experiences mostly highlighted by the caregivers in this study<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Caregivers are important role players in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. It is therefore<br />important that rehabilitation professionals are aware of the experiences of these caregivers so that their needs<br />could also be addressed when managing the stroke patient</p> Oswell Khondowe Ratie Mpofu Anthea Rhoda Copyright (c) 2017 Oswell Khondowe, Ratie Mpofu, Anthea Rhoda 1 2 A descriptive study to evaluate the effect of guidelines used by counsellors to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy in the private sector <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Introduction</strong>: To achieve a virological outcome to antiretroviral therapy, a high adherence level is required.<br /><strong>Objective</strong>: To implement and evaluate guidelines that will be used by treatment support counsellors in an<br />attempt to increase client adherence to antiretroviral treatment.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A quasi - experimental comparative study was used to assess whether a structured treatment support<br />guidelines can improve client adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The treatment outcome of two groups was<br /><strong>compared</strong>: one group received the adherence guidelines and the other group was a historical group where no<br />adherence guidelines were applied. The main outcome measure was whether adherence guidelines improved<br />adherence to ART.<br /><strong>Participants</strong>: Forty clients were exposed to the adherence guidelines and 34 were not.<br /><strong>Setting</strong>: Clients that subscribe to Aids for Aids.<br /><strong>Intervention</strong>: A structured guideline used by counsellors with regular contact.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Specific guidelines used by counsellors to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy has shown that<br />significantly more clients in the intervention group had their CD4 blood tests done after six months and adhered<br />to regularly claim their medications. In addition were there more clients in the intervention group who had viral<br />loads of less than 400 copies I ml after six months.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Specific counselling using effective guidelines improve adherence to antiretroviral treatment.</p> Melanie Marais Cheryl Nikodem Copyright (c) 2017 Melanie Marais, Cheryl Nikodem 1 2 Reflections on nursing students' e-learning experiences <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Introduction</strong>: To ensure that nursing education stay abreast with modern technology advances has the School<br />of Nursing (SoN) of The University of the Western Cape integrated e-learning into the curriculum. This method<br />articulates well with the case-based approach adopted by the SoN. The Learning Management System,<br />Knowledge Environment for Web-Based Learning (Kewl), Next Generation (KNG), was used to facilitate online<br />teaching and learning.<br /><strong>Objectives</strong>: The primary aim was to gather baseline data on e-learning by exploring the perceptions and<br />experiences of the first pilot group of undergraduate nursing students who were exposed to this strategy.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative design was used to determine the students' understanding<br />and valuing of e-learning, the benefits and skills gained and challenges experienced, by means of a structured,<br />close-ended questionnaire with space for comments. Convenience sampling was used and the questionnaire<br />was distributed to the 87 third year undergraduate nursing students who completed the Primary Mental Health<br />Care module between May and July 2006. Microsoft Excel software was used for the capturing and analysis of<br />the data.<br /><strong>Participants</strong>: Nursing students in their third year of Baccalaures Curationis degree who participated in the<br />Primary Health Care module.<br /><strong>Setting</strong>: University of the Western Cape, Cape town.<br />Intervention: Introduction of e-learning as a teaching strategy.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: The response rate was low. Although some students struggled initially, the majority finally succeeded<br />in mastering e-learning. KNG has benefits but students also face specific challenges that need to be attended<br />to. Most of the respondents felt that the learning experience was valuable and stated that they will recommend it<br />to other students.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Students need to adapt to the challenges of modern technology. They still preferred face-to face<br />teaching rather than group work.</p> Hester Julie Lorraine Fakude Copyright (c) 2017 Hester Julie, Lorraine Fakude 1 2 The practical in theory and the theoretical in practice: facilitating integration in teaching and learning <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br /><strong>Introduction</strong>: The integration of theory and practice in student learning is a challenge faced by teachers in<br />health science education, where the curriculum contains large sections of learning in clinical or fieldwork<br />settings. Theoretical modules traditionally precede fieldwork modules with the assumption that theory prepares<br />students for fieldwork. However, students report lack of confidence and struggle to integrate theory and<br />practice. The findings of an action research study of the facilitation of theory-practice integration in health<br />sciences education is reported in this paper.<br /><strong>Objectives</strong>: The objective of the study was to investigate the creation of learning opportunities that would result<br />in improved confidence in clinical decision-making in fieldwork.<br /><strong>Methods</strong>: A qualitative approach with an action research strategy was used to execute the research.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Using reflective diaries and real life problems can enhance the integration of theory and practice.<br /><strong>Participants</strong>: Third year occupational therapy students.<br /><strong>Setting</strong>: University of the Western Cape, community and school based facilities.<br /><strong>Intervention</strong>: Implementation of additional learning opportunities to integrate theory and practice.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Introducing alternative learning strategies to integrate theory and practice can improve the learning<br />outcomes of students who follow professional degrees.</p> Viki Van Rensburg Copyright (c) 2017 Viki Van Rensburg 1 2 Conquering the publishing silences of black academic women <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br><strong>Introduction</strong>: Although women fulfil and play meaningful roles in the academic life of universities, their<br>contributions have seldom been acknowledged. The voices of women outside of the dominant western context<br>of knowledge production, such as women in South African historically black universities (HBUs), remain largely<br>marginalized. Women at these HBUs have indicated a need for mentoring and support to assist with their<br>scholarly endeavours.<br><strong>Objectives</strong>: The objective of the present study was to determine the participants' views on the ways in which the<br>mentoring process was used to overcome the challenges of publishing their academic work.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Using a qualitative method and a focus group discussion to collect data.<br><strong>Participants</strong>: Lecturers who attended an academic writing skills development program.<br><strong>Setting</strong>: University of the Western Cape.<br>Intervention: Academic writing skills development program.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The findings of this study indicates that dedicated time, learning to write, a supportive network and a<br>culture of publishing in the institution was needed to assist black academic women conquer their publishing<br>silences.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: A mentoring process can facilitate academic publication output.</p> Anthea Rhoda Anita Maurtin-Cairncross Julie Phillips Sarah Witbooi Copyright (c) 2017 Anthea Rhoda, Anita Maurtin-Cairncross, Julie Phillips, Sarah Witbooi 1 2 Her-stories in South African sport: gender and sport in the Cape Colony 1806-1910 <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br><strong>Introduction</strong>: The gendering of South African sport has a point of origin which is not explicitly evident until one<br>examines the impact of the combined effects of the masculinity-sports relationship during the Victorian era,<br>British imperialism and colonization in Southern Africa, and the institutionalisation of sports in England and her<br>colonies. The question that emerges is "how did this shape the sports(s) practices of women at the time?"<br><strong>Objectives</strong>: The objective is to highlight the way the sporting culture of Victorian England and the associated<br>ideals of womanliness and manliness shaped the in itial construction of gender and sport in South Africa.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Review of literature on sport in the history of South Africa, 1806-1910. The article has been written<br>within the framework of subsequent emerging themes.<br><strong>Discussion</strong>: In this article the focus is on (1) the way the importance placed on the reproductive role of women<br>promoted the view that females were physically more vulnerable than males and therefore their participation in<br>sports put them at risk; (2) how female sports participation was both liberating and restrictive and led to a<br>redefinition of femininity; and (3) the scant reference to sporting females in the Cape media of the time.<br><strong>Implications for practice and research</strong>: It is not possible to obtain an understanding of the way sport<br>constructs unequal gender relations without some knowledge of how they evolved over time. Scholarship in<br>sports history should incorporate gender relations as an analytical category of historical research.</p> Denise Jones Copyright (c) 2017 Denise Jones 1 2